Direct And Indirect Speech

Kalimat Langsung Dan Kalimat Tak Langsung

Bilamana reported speech menyatakan kata-kata yang sebenarnya, ini disebut direct speech (kalimat langsung). Kalimat-kalimat tersebut tidak dihubungkan oleh “that” melainkan harus ditandai dengan (tanda baca) koma.

Bilamana reported speech memberikan isi pokok kata-kata yang dipakai oleh si pembicara dan bukan kata-kata yang sebenarnya ini disebut indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung). Dalam indirect speech kalimat-kalimat itu dihubungkan dengan kata “that”.

Bentuk waktu reporting verb tidak diubah, akan tetapi bentuk waktu reported speech harus diubah berdasarkan atas bentuk waktu reporting verb.

Dua cara perubahan bentuk waktu pada reported speech :

Peraturan I

Kalau reporting verb itu past tense, bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech itu harus diubah ke dalam salah satu dari empat bentuk past tense.

 

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

Simple present – menjadi – Simple past

He said ” The woman comes “ He said that the woman came.

Dari contoh di atas dapat disimpulkan perubahan untuk bentuk waktu dari reported speech sebagai berikut :

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Simple present

“He eats rice”

Present continuous

“He is eating rice”

Present perfect

“He has eaten rice”

Present perfect continuous

“He has been eating rice”

Simple past

“He ate rice”

Past continuous

“He was eating rice”

Simple Future

“He will eat rice”

Past future

“He would eat rice”

 

Simple past

“He ate rice”

Past continuous

“He was eating rice”

Past perfect

“He had eaten rice”

Past perfect continuous

“He had been eating rice”

Past perfect

“He had eaten rice”

Past perfect continuous

“He had been eating rice”

Past future

“He would eat rice”

Past future

“He would eat rice”

 

Kekecualian :

Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi kebiasaan, present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam bentuk lampau yang sesuai, melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanya, contoh :

Direct Speech – Indirect Speech

He said, “The sun rises in the east” – He said that the sun rises in the east.

Dalam reported speech, bila present tense diubah ke dalam past tense dengan peraturan I, kata sifat, kata kerja atau kata keterangan umumnya diubah:

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

this = ini

these = ini

come = datang

here = di sini, ke sini

hence = dari sini

hither = ke tempat ini

ago = yang lalu

now = sekarang

today = hari ini

tomorrow = besok

yesterday = kemarin

last night = tadi malam

next week = minggu depan

thus = begini

 

contoh :

He said, “I will come here”.

 

that = itu

those = itu

go = pergi

there = di sana, ke sana

thence = dari sana

thither = ke tempat itu

before = lebih dahulu

then = pada waktu itu

that day = hari itu

next day = hari berikutnya

the previous day = sehari sebelumnya

the previous night = semalam sebelumnya

the following week = minggu berikutnya

so = begitu

He said that he would go there

 

Akan tetapi kalau this, here, now dan sebagainya menunjukan pada benda, tempat atau waktu ketika berbicara, maka tidak dilakukan perubahan.

Agus said, “This is my pen”. – Agus said that this was his pen.

(ketika berbicara pena berada di tangan pembicara)

Peraturan II

1) Bila reported speech kalimat berita

Dengan peraturan ini reporting verb dianggap dalam present atau future tense tertentu dan kapan saja ini terjadi, bentuk waktu dari kata kerja dalam reported speech tidak diubah sama sekali dalam mengubah direct menjadi indirect speech.

Reporting verb – Reported speech

Present tense – Any tense (bentuk waktu apapun)

Direct : She says to her friend, ” I have been writing “.

Indirect : She says to her friend that he has been writing. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She has told you, ” I am reading “.

Indirect : She has told you that he is reading. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She will say, ” You have done wrongly “.

Indirect : She will tell you that you have done wrongly. (tidak berubah)

Direct : She will say,” The boy wasn’t lazy “.

Indirect : She will tell them that the boy wasn’t lazy. (tidak berubah)

2) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat tanya

a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. Dengan mengulangi kata tanya dan mengubah tenses jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata tanya diberitakan.

Direct

Indirect

He said to me, “Where are you going?”

He said to me, “What are you doing?”

He asked me where I was going

He inquired of me what I was doing

b) Dengan menggunakan if atau whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengubah tenses, jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata kerja diberitakan :

Direct

Indirect

He said to me, “Are you going

away today?”

He asked me , “can you come along?”

He asked me whether I was

going away that day.

He asked me if I could come along.

3) Kalimat perintah (imperative sentences)

Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat perintah, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan :

command (perintah), misalnya ordered, commanded, dsb yang berarti menyuruh, memerintahkan.

precept (petunjuk, bimbingan, didikan), misalnya advised yang berarti menasehati.

request (permohonan), misalnya asked yang berarti meminta, memohon.

entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak), misalnya begged yang berarti meminta, memohon (dengan sangat).

prohibition (larangan), misalnya forbade yang berarti melarang.

Dalam perubahannya dari kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung, modus imperatif harus diganti dengan infinitif. Tegasnya, reported verb (kata kerja yang diberitakan atau kata kerja dalam reported speech) harus diubah menjadi infinitive with to.

a) Command :

Direct: He said to his servant, “Go away at once!”

Indirect:He ordered his servant to go away at once.

b) Precept :

Direct: She said to her son, “Study hard!”

Indirect: He advised her son to study hard.

c) Request :

Direct: He said to his friend, “Please lend me your pen!”

Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to lend him his pencil.

d) Entreaty :

Direct: He said to his master, “Pardon me, sir”

Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him.

e) Prohibition :

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there.

Kalau reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi reported verb ask, order, command dsb (tapi jika bukan forbid), predikatnya diubah ke dalam infinitive with to yang didahului oleh not atau no + infinitive with to.

Direct: She said to her daughter, “Don’t go there”

Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there.

4) Kalimat seru (exclamatory sentences)

Bilamana reported speech terdiri dari kalimat seru atau kalimat optatif, reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang semacam itu seperti exclaim, cry out, pray dsb.

a) Exclamatory sentences

Direct: He said, “Hurrah! My old friend has come”

Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that his old friend had come.

b) Optative sentences (kalimat yang menyatakan harapan, pujian, dsb)

Direct: He said, “God bless you, my dear son “

Indirect: He prayed that God would bless his dear son.

Cambridge Indonesia Relation

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